Piano Care


31633 21 1A piano brings a lifetime of enjoyment to you and your family. As you might expect with any investment of this size, a piano requires periodic servicing to provide outstanding performance year after year. But to understand what maintenance is required, it is important to understand the nature of the piano.

The beautiful, natural sound of a piano is due to the remarkable blending of such materials such as wood, metal, buckskin and wool. Together they create a uniquely timeless sound that no other instrument in the world can duplicate. While electronic synthesizers may approximate the sound of an acoustic piano, they cannot approach the true beauty of the real thing.

As with any piece of furniture, keeping drinks off finished wood surfaces is a simple rule always to follow. New piano finishes generally require only occasional cleaning with either a dry or damp cotton cloth. Older piano finishes may benefit from an occasional polishing with a good quality polish, but frequent polishing is not recommended.

When you look inside your piano, you'll find a cast plate or "harp" strung with steel and copper-wound strings over a large expanse of wood which is the soundboard. If you look closer, you'll discover an intricate system of levers, springs and hammers connected to the keyboard.

The complex system which causes a hammer to strike a string when you press a key is called the piano’s action. It is a marvel of engineering composed largely of wood and wool felt. This mechanism needs to be responsive to every nuance of the pianist’s touch - from loud, thunderous chords to soft, delicate passages.

When a piano leaves the factory, each of its parts are adjusted to a tolerance of a few thousandths of an inch. This process is called action regulation. Because the wood and felt parts of the action may change dimension due to humidity and wear, the action must be serviced occasionally to maintain its responsive qualities.

Extreme swings from hot to cold or dry to wet are harmful to your piano. Dryness causes the piano’s pitch to go flat; moisture makes it go sharp. Repeated swings in relative humidity can cause soundboards to crack or distort. Extreme dryness also can weaken the glue joints that hold the soundboard and other wood portions of the piano together. Moisture may lead to string rust. A piano functions best under fairly consistent conditions which are neither too wet or dry, optimally at a temperature of 68 degrees F and 42 percent relative humidity.

Using an air conditioner in humid summer months and adding a humidifier to your central heating system will reduce the extremes of high and low humidity. Room humidifiers and dehumidifiers, as well as systems designed to be installed inside of pianos will control humidity-related disorders still further.

A piano also periodically requires a service called voicing. Because the tone changes as the felt hammers wear, periodic voicing of the hammers is necessary so that your piano will have an even, full tone throughout the entire scale, and produce the widest possible dynamic range.

The Piano Technicians Guild, Inc. (PTG) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to expanding the knowledge and skill of professionals in the piano industry. The largest organization of its kind in the world, its membership includes piano technicians, rebuilders, piano designers and manufacturers, enthusiasts and retailers. PTG certifies Registered Piano Technicians (RPTs) through a series of rigorous examinations designed to test their skill in tuning, regulation and repair. Those capable of performing these tasks up to a recognizable worldwide standard receive RPT certification.

For more information on how to contact a Registered Piano Technician, write to us at the Piano Technicians Guild, Inc., 3930 Washington, Kansas City, MO 64111 for a list of RPTs in your area.


  • Keep your piano in tune. It was specifically designed to be tuned to the international pitch standard A-440 cycles per second. Your piano will sound its best and give you and your family the most pleasure when it is tuned regularly and kept in proper playing condition.
  • Keep your piano clean. Keep the keyboard covered when not in use to prevent dust from accumulating (although ivory keys need some exposure to light to prevent yellowing). Clean keys by occasionally wiping them with a damp cloth and drying them immediately; If accumulated debris can't be removed with a damp cloth, try wiping the cloth on a bar of mild soap of moisten with dishwashing detergent before wiping. Do not use chemicals or solvents to clean piano keys. Call a qualified piano technician to remove anything from the keys you can't wipe away.
  • To maintain the pianos finish, you may wipe the case with a damp cotton cloth to remove fingerprints, or polish with a reliable emulsion-type, water-based solution following the manufacturers instructions. Avoid aerosol spray polishes that contain silicone. Your technician may suggest a specific bran name.
  • The maintenance of the inner workings of the piano should be left to a qualified piano technician. Resist dusting the inside of your piano, oiling the moving parts, or using moth or insect repellents. Your piano technician will take care of internal problems.
  • Try to maintain a fairly consistent temperature and humidity in the room where your piano is placed. It's important to keep your piano away from a heating register in winter, an air conditioning vent in summer, a fireplace, a frequently opened window or outside door, and direct sunlight.
  • Play you piano regularly. You'll get the most enjoyment from it and reach your potential much faster. A disadvantage to idle pianos, assuming they also suffer a service lapse, is that a detrimental condition or environment can't be identified, and an escalating problem can result in damage that might not have occurred with regular service.
  • Keep all drinks and standing liquid containers off the piano. Should spilled water reach the action, notify your piano technician immediately. In many cases, once liquids are spilled, the damage is irreversible which is why prevention is the safest rule to follow.
  • Select a piano technician with care. It's not only important that the service person be competent to perform tuning, regulation and repairs, but also someone you feel comfortable calling with questions concerning your pianos performance. Hiring a registered piano technician who is committed to comprehensive service for your piano, and not just an occasional tuning, is your best assurance.
  • Do not perform repairs yourself. Though a problem may appear easy to solve (such as replacing a loose key ivory), a qualifies technician will have the proper tools and parts to make repairs quickly and correctly. It's important to remember unsuccessful amateur repairs are usually much more expensive to fix than the initial problem and may decrease the value of your instrument.
  • Use only a professional piano mover to move your piano. You will avoid injury to yourself, your instrument and your home.


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